R is a versatile, open-source programming language and environment that specializes in statistical computing and graphics. Originally developed in 1993 by Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, R has evolved into a pivotal tool for data analysis, visualization, and machine learning, with widespread applications across various domains such as finance, biology, and engineering.

### Core Features:

**Open Source:**- R is freely available under the GNU General Public License, allowing users to modify and share the code.

**Statistical Packages:**- R offers an extensive range of statistical and mathematical packages for various data analysis needs, including linear and nonlinear modeling, time-series analysis, classification, clustering, and others.

**Graphics and Visualization:**- R provides advanced graphics utilities and visualization libraries like ggplot2, which enables users to create intricate, multi-faceted visual representations of their data.

**Compatibility and Connectivity:**- R can interface well with other programming languages like C++, Java, and Python, and it supports connectivity with various database types.

**Extensibility:**- The comprehensive R package ecosystem, primarily hosted on CRAN (Comprehensive R Archive Network), allows users to take advantage of a multitude of libraries and extensions, developed by a global community of contributors.

**Community and Support:**- R benefits from a vast, vibrant community of users, developers, and contributors who offer support through online forums, blogs, and tutorials.

**Data Handling:**- R can handle both structured and unstructured data and can read data from various sources including flat files, databases, and other statistical software.

### Applications of R Programming Language

The R programming language, renowned for its statistical and data analysis capabilities, finds diverse applications across numerous fields and industries. Here are several notable applications where R is extensively used:

#### 1. Data Science and Analytics:

**Data Exploration and Transformation:**R excels in exploring and transforming data, helping analysts understand the underlying patterns and structures in the dataset.**Predictive Modeling:**R is widely used to build predictive models using algorithms like linear regression, decision trees, and clustering, to forecast future trends and patterns.**Machine Learning:**R provides a comprehensive set of packages like caret and randomForest for developing machine learning models to detect anomalies, perform classifications, and make predictions.

#### 2. Bioinformatics and Healthcare:

**Genomic Analysis:**R is pivotal in analyzing genomic data, understanding DNA sequences, and discovering new patterns or mutations.**Clinical Trials:**In healthcare, R aids in designing and analyzing clinical trials, assessing drug efficacy, and monitoring adverse effects.**Epidemiology Studies:**R is used to study the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events, enabling the modeling of epidemic trends and disease transmission.

#### 3. Finance and Economics:

**Risk Management:**Financial analysts use R to assess risk, develop trading strategies, and predict market movements.**Econometric Analysis:**R assists economists in understanding economic relationships, testing economic theories, and modeling economic systems.**Portfolio Management:**R is used for optimizing portfolios, allocating assets, and analyzing market trends.

#### 4. Academic Research and Education:

**Statistical Research:**Academicians and researchers employ R to perform complex statistical analyses, hypothesis testing, and data exploration in their research studies.**Educational Tools:**R serves as an educational tool to teach various subjects, including statistics, mathematics, and programming, through its intuitive syntax and vast library support.**Publication-Quality Graphics:**R’s advanced graphics capabilities allow researchers to create high-quality plots, charts, and graphs for academic publications.

#### 5. Marketing and Business Analytics:

**Customer Segmentation:**Businesses use R to segment customers based on purchasing behavior, preferences, and demographics.**Market Research:**R assists market researchers in analyzing consumer data, identifying market trends, and making informed business decisions.**Sentiment Analysis:**R is used to analyze customer sentiments and feedback from social media, surveys, and reviews.

#### 6. Manufacturing and Quality Control:

**Process Optimization:**R is instrumental in optimizing manufacturing processes, reducing costs, and improving efficiency.**Quality Testing:**R helps in designing experiments and analyzing the quality of products through various testing methods.**Supply Chain Analysis:**R enables analysts to model and optimize supply chain processes, forecast demand, and manage inventory.

#### 7. Sports Analytics:

**Performance Analysis:**R is employed to analyze athletes’ performances, assess teams’ strategies, and predict game outcomes.**Injury Prediction:**Using R, sports analysts can predict the likelihood of injuries and recommend preventive measures.**Game Strategy Optimization:**Teams use R to optimize strategies, analyze opponents, and enhance game preparations.

#### 8. Environmental Science:

**Climate Studies:**Environmental scientists use R to model climate change, analyze weather patterns, and study ecological systems.**Conservation Biology:**R assists in studying wildlife populations, analyzing biodiversity, and modeling species distributions.**Pollution Monitoring:**R is applied to monitor and analyze pollution levels, assess environmental impacts, and study environmental degradation.

In summary, R is a powerful and versatile language for data analysis and statistics. Its rich ecosystem, specialized libraries, and strong community support make it a popular choice among statisticians, data scientists, and researchers in various fields.

## R Programming

- Install R and RStudio
- Install Packages in R
- R Print Output
- R Comments
- R Variables
- R Concatenate Elements
- R Multiple Variables
- R Variable Names
- R Data Types
- R Math
- R Strings
- R Escape Characters
- R Booleans
- R Operators
- R If Else Conditions
- R While Loop
- R For Loop
- R Functions
- R Nested Functions
- R Function Recursion

## R Data Structures

## Import & Export Data

- How to Save and Load RDA Files in R
- How to Import CSV Files into R
- How to Read a CSV file from a URL in R
- How to Download Files from the Internet Using R
- How to Use readLines() Function in R
- How to Read Zip Files in R
- How to Use list.files() Function in R
- How to Use fread() in R to Import Files Faster
- How to Import Excel Files into R
- How to Import TSV Files into R
- How to Import SAS Files into R
- How to Import SPSS Files into R
- How to Import .dta Files into R
- How to Export a Data Frame to a CSV File in R
- How to Export a Data Frame to an Excel File in R
- How to Use read.delim Function in R
- How to Use the write.table Function in R
- How to Use the write.xlsx Function in R
- How to Use the read.table Function in R
- How to Use setwd and getwd in R
- How to Use the sink() Function in R
- How to Check if File Exists in R
- How to Rename Files in R
- How to Delete a File Using R
- How to Clear the Environment in R
- How to Unload a Package in R
- How to Check which Package Version is Loaded in R
- The Difference Between require() and library() in R
- How to Check if a Package is Installed in R

## Descriptive Statistics

- How to Calculate Descriptive Statistics in R
- How to Calculate Z-Scores in R
- How to Calculate Polychoric Correlation in R
- How to Calculate Pearson’s Correlation in R
- How to Calculate Partial Correlation in R
- How to Calculate Point-Biserial Correlation in R
- How to Calculate Cross-Correlation in R
- How to Calculate Spearman Rank Correlation in R
- How to Calculate Matthews Correlation Coefficient in R
- How to Calculate Intraclass Correlation Coefficient in R
- How to Create a Correlation Matrix in R
- How to Create a Covariance Matrix in R
- How to Calculate Sample & Population Variance in R
- How to Remove Outliers in R
- How to Calculate Standard Error of the Mean in R
- How to Calculate a Trimmed Mean in R
- How to Calculate a Cumulative Average in R
- How to Calculate Geometric Mean in R
- How to Calculate a Weighted Mean in R
- How to Calculate a Bootstrap Standard Error in R
- How to Perform Data Binning in R
- How to Calculate Cohen’s d in R
- How to Calculate Cohen’s Kappa in R
- How to Select Unique Rows in a DataFrame in R
- How to Select All But One Column in R
- How to Find Unique Values in a Column in R
- How to Perform a COUNTIF Function in R
- How to Perform a SUMIF Function in R
- How to Use paste & paste0 Functions in R
- The Difference Between cat() and paste() in R
- coeftest() Function in R
- confint() Function in R
- linearHypothesis() Function in R
- unlist() Function in R
- length() Function in R
- fitdistr() in R
- intersect() Function in R
- identical() Function in R
- attach() Function in R
- nchar() Function in R
- dim() Function in R
- str() Function in R
- optim() Function in R
- melt() Function in R
- get() Function in R
- cat() Function in R
- strsplit() Function in R
- substring() Function in R
- c() Function in R
- How to Add Text to a Plot in R
- sign() Function in R
- mtext() Function in R
- assign() Function in R
- sprintf() Function in R
- split() Function in R
- tabulate() Function in R
- scale() Function in R
- View() Function in R
- table() Function in R
- sum() Function in R
- par() Function in R
- prop.table() Function in R
- aggregate() Function in R
- nrow() Function in R
- ncol() Function in R
- How to Find the Size of a Data Frame in R
- gsub() Function in R
- summary() Function in R
- colMeans() Function in R
- rowMeans() Function in R
- pmax() and pmin() Functions in R
- rowSums() Function in R
- Summing Columns Based on a Condition in R
- How to Calculate the Mean of a Column in R
- How to Calculate Standard Deviation by Group in R
- How to Calculate the Mean by Group in R
- How to Calculate the Sum by Group in R
- How to Calculate the Mean in R
- How to Calculate the Mode in R
- How to Calculate a Weighted Mean in R
- How to Calculate Cumulative Sums in R
- How to Calculate Expected Value in R
- seq() Function in R
- dist( ) Function in R
- diff( ) Function in R
- How to Use with() and within() Functions in R
- How to Calculate Conditional Probability in R
- How to Apply Bayes’ Theorem in R
- How to Calculate the Dot Product in R
- How to Calculate a Cross Product in R
- How to Calculate Cosine Similarity in R
- How to Calculate Euclidean Distance in R
- How to Calculate Hamming Distance in R
- How to Calculate Levenshtein Distance in R
- How to Calculate Manhattan Distance in R
- How to Calculate Minkowski Distance in R
- How to Calculate Mahalanobis Distance in R
- How to Calculate Jaccard Similarity in R
- How to Calculate Combinations & Permutations in R
- How to Calculate Autocorrelation in R
- How to Create Frequency Tables in R
- How to Create Relative Frequency Tables in R
- How to Sort a Table in R
- How to Find the Range in R
- How to Calculate Interquartile Range in R
- How to Use Min and Max Functions in R
- How to Calculate Skewness & Kurtosis in R
- quantile() Function in R
- How to Perform Bootstrapping in R
- How to Find Confidence Intervals in R
- How to Create Pivot Tables in R
- Reshape Data Between Wide and Long Format in R
- How to Count TRUE Values in a Logical Vector in R
- Count the Number of Occurrences in a Column in R
- How to Count Number of Rows in R
- How to Count Number of Elements in List in R
- How to Count Unique Values by Group in R
- How to Count Unique Values in Column in R
- How to Perform Matrix Multiplication in R
- How to Create the Identity Matrix in R
- How to Perform Univariate Analysis in R
- How to Perform Bivariate Analysis in R
- How to Calculate AUC (Area Under the Curve) in R
- How to Calculate F1 Score in R
- How to Find the Antilog of Values in R
- How to Solve a System of Equations in R
- How to Plot an Equation in R

## Visualizations

- How to Plot Multiple Boxplots in One Chart in R
- How to Change Axis Labels of Boxplot in R
- How to Add Titles to Plots in Base R
- How to Create a Strip Chart in R
- How to Create an Ogive Graph in R
- How to Create a Histogram in R
- How to Create a Bar Chart in R
- How to Create a Scatter Plot in R
- How to Create a Line Chart in R
- How to Plot Multiple Lines in One Chart in R
- How to Plot Multiple Histograms in R
- How to Add a Vertical Line to a Histogram in R
- How to Plot Categorical Data in R
- How to Create a Correlation Heatmap in R
- How to Create a Lollipop Chart in R
- How to Create Kernel Density Plots in R
- How to Create a Frequency Polygon in R
- How to Use the Jitter Function in R for Scatter Plots
- How to Label Points on a Scatter plot in R
- How to Create a Scatterplot Matrix in R
- How to Create a Population Pyramid in R
- How to Create 3D Plots in R
- How to Use abline() in R
- How to Add Label to abline in R
- How to Plot Multiple Plots on Same Graph in R
- How to Create a Histogram with Different Colors in R
- How to Create a Relative Frequency Histogram in R
- How to Change Number of Bins in Histogram in R
- How to Plot Predicted Values in R
- How to Plot a Decision Tree in R
- How to Create Pairs Plots in R
- How to Plot a Confidence Interval in R
- How to Create Scatter Plots by Group in R
- How to Create a Scatterplot with a Regression Line in R
- How to Overlay Normal Curve on Histogram in R
- How to Specify Histogram Breaks in R
- How to Create Horizontal Boxplots in R
- How to Create Radar Charts in R
- How to Create a Stacked Bar Plot in R
- How to Create a Grouped Bar Plot in R
- How to Create a Stacked Dot Plot in R
- How to Create Added Variable Plots in R
- How to Change Legend Position in Base R Plots
- How to Create an Interaction Plot in R
- How to Create a Pareto Chart in R
- How to Create a Bubble Chart in R
- How to Create a Scree Plot in R
- How to Create a Bland-Altman Plot in R
- How to Plot a Logistic Regression Curve in R
- How to Create a Forest Plot in R
- How to Create a Log-Log Plot in R
- How to Add Error Bars to Charts in R
- How to Use xlim() and ylim() in R
- How to Change Font Size in Base R Plots

## Probability Distributions

- The Uniform Distribution in R
- How to Use the Multinomial Distribution in R
- How to Calculate Kullback-Leibler Divergence in R
- Normal Distribution in R
- Binomial Distribution in R
- Poisson Distribution in R
- The Chi-Square Distribution in R
- The Geometric Distribution in R
- The Gamma Distribution in R
- The Student t-Distribution in R
- The Difference Between rnorm() and runif() in R
- How to Calculate & Plot a Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) in R
- How to Calculate Sampling Distributions in R
- How to Apply the Empirical Rule in R
- How to Apply the Central Limit Theorem in R
- How to Use the Normal Cumulative Distribution Function in R
- How to Simulate & Plot a Bivariate Normal Distribution in R
- How to Plot a Normal Distribution in R
- How to Plot a Chi-Square Distribution in R
- How to Plot a t Distribution in R
- How to Plot a Log Normal Distribution in R
- How to Plot an Exponential Distribution in R
- How to Plot a Binomial Distribution in R
- How to Plot a Poisson Distribution in R
- How to Plot a Weibull Distribution in R
- How to Plot a Beta Distribution in R
- How to Plot a Uniform Distribution in R
- How to Calculate the P-Value of an F-Statistic in R

## Hypothesis Tests

- How to Do Hypothesis Testing in R
- How to Conduct a Sobel Test in R
- How to Perform a One Proportion Z-Test in R
- How to Perform One Sample & Two Sample Z-Tests in R
- How to Conduct Fisher’s Exact Test in R
- How to Conduct a Jarque-Bera Test in R
- How to Conduct an Anderson-Darling Test in R
- How to Perform a Wald Test in R
- How to Perform a KPSS Test in R
- How to Perform a Kruskal-Wallis Test in R
- How to Perform a Variance Ratio Test in R
- A Guide to Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity
- How to Calculate Standard Deviation in R
- How to Calculate Pooled Standard Deviation in R
- How to Calculate Weighted Standard Deviation in R
- How to Calculate the Coefficient of Variation in R
- How to Conduct Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances in R
- How to Perform an F-Test in R
- How to Create & Interpret a Q-Q Plot in R
- How to Perform a One Sample T-Test in R
- How to Perform a Two Sample T-Test in R
- How to Perform a Paired Samples t-test in R
- How to Perform Welch’s t-Test in R
- How to Perform the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test in R
- How to Perform a Mann-Whitney U Test in R
- How to Perform a Mann-Kendall Trend Test in R
- How to Perform McNemar’s Test in R
- How to Perform Grubbs’ Test in R
- How to Perform a Binomial Test in R
- How to Perform Mood’s Median Test in R
- How to Perform Runs Test in R
- How to Test for Normality in R
- How to Perform a Shapiro-Wilk Test in R
- Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test in R
- How to Perform a Correlation Test in R
- Chi-Square Test of Independence in R
- How to Perform a Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test in R
- How to Perform a Likelihood Ratio Test in R
- How to Calculate Cramer’s V in R
- How to Calculate a Phi Coefficient in R
- How to Calculate Gini Coefficient in R
- How to Perform a Chow Test in R
- How to Perform a Granger-Causality Test in R
- How to Perform Bartlett’s Test in R
- How to Perform a Log Rank Test in R

## Regression

- How to Perform Cross Validation for Model Performance in R
- How to Perform Linear Regression in R
- How to Perform Multiple Linear Regression in R
- How to Perform Quadratic Regression in R
- How to Perform Exponential Regression in R
- Logarithmic Regression in R
- How to Perform LOESS Regression in R
- How to Perform Power Regression in R
- How to Perform Robust Regression in R
- How to Perform Quantile Regression in R
- How to Perform Spline Regression in R
- Polynomial Regression in R
- Stepwise Regression in R
- How to Perform Piecewise Regression in R
- Weighted Least Squares Regression in R
- How to Calculate Odds Ratios in Logistic Regression Model in R
- How to Calculate Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) in R
- How to Use Method of Least Squares in R
- Poisson Regression in R
- How to Use the predict function with glm in R
- How to Use the predict() Function with lm() in R
- The Difference Between glm and lm in R
- How to Interpret glm Output in R
- How to Use lm() Function in R to Fit Linear Models
- How to Use regsubsets() in R for Model Selection
- How to Perform a Durbin-Watson Test in R
- How to Perform a Breusch-Godfrey Test in R
- How to Perform a Breusch-Pagan Test in R
- How to Perform White’s Test in R
- How to Perform the Goldfeld-Quandt Test in R
- How to Create a Residual Plot in R
- How to Calculate Residual Standard Error in R
- How to Calculate Robust Standard Errors in R
- How to Test for Multicollinearity in R
- How to Perform a Box-Cox Transformation in R
- How to Find Coefficient of Determination (R-Squared) in R
- How to Calculate Adjusted R-Squared in R
- How to Calculate Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) in R
- How to Interpret a Scale-Location Plot in R
- How to Calculate Studentized Residuals in R
- How to Calculate Standardized Residuals in R
- How to Calculate Leverage Statistics in R
- How to Calculate DFFITS in R
- How to Calculate DFBETAS in R
- How to Calculate Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) in R
- How to Use stepAIC in R for Feature Selection
- How to Calculate Residual Sum of Squares in R
- How to Create a Histogram of Residuals in R
- How to Create Dummy Variables in R
- How to Perform Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Regression in R
- How to Perform a Lack of Fit Test in R
- How to Calculate SST, SSR, and SSE in R
- How to Create a Confusion Matrix in R
- How to Use the Elbow Method in R to Find Optimal Clusters

## ANOVA

- How to Conduct a One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in R
- How to Conduct a Two-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in R
- How to Perform a Three-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in R
- How to Perform a Repeated Measures ANOVA in R
- How to Perform a Nested ANOVA in R
- How to Conduct a Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) in R
- How to Conduct an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) in R
- How to Perform Welch’s ANOVA in R
- How to Perform the Friedman Test in R
- How to Perform Tukey’s Test in R
- How to Perform a Brown–Forsythe Test in R
- How to Perform a Bonferroni Correction in R
- How to Perform Scheffe’s Test in R
- How to Perform Dunnett’s Test in R
- How to Perform Dunn’s Test in R
- How to Perform Fisher’s LSD Test in R
- How to Perform Post-Hoc Pairwise Comparisons in R
- How to Calculate Eta Squared in R
- How to Create an Interaction Plot in R
- When to Use aov() vs. anova() in R

## Time Series

- How to Calculate MAPE in R
- How to Calculate SMAPE in R
- How to Calculate WMAPE in R
- How to Calculate RMSE in R
- How to Calculate MSE in R
- How to Calculate Median Absolute Deviation in R
- How to Calculate Mean Absolute Error in R
- How to Fit a TBATS Model in R
- How to Create a Time Series in R
- How to Plot a Time Series in R
- How to Convert Data Frame to Time Series in R
- How to Perform Naive Forecasting in R
- How to Perform Lowess Smoothing in R
- How to Calculate a Rolling Average in R
- How to Calculate a Moving Average by Group in R
- How to Calculate an Exponential Moving Average in R
- How to Aggregate Daily Data to Monthly and Yearly in R
- How to Calculate Number of Months Between Dates in R
- How to Find Earliest Date in a Column In R
- How to Extract Month from Date in R
- How to Add and Subtract Months from a Date in R
- How to Subtract Hours from Time in R
- How to Add Days to Date in R
- How to Calculate Business Days in R
- How to Extract Year from Date in R
- How to Get Week Number from Dates in R
- How to Find Day of the Week in R
- How to Group Data by Week in R
- How to Group Data by Month in R
- How to Group Data by Hour in R
- How to Convert Date to Quarter and Year in R
- The Complete Guide to Date Formats in R
- How to Use as.Date() Function in R
- The Augmented Dickey-Fuller Test in R
- How to Get the First or Last Day of the Month in R
- How to Generate a Sequence of Dates in R
- How to Convert Character to Date in R

## R Operations

- A Guide to apply(), lapply(), sapply(), and tapply() in R
- How to Add an Index Column to a Data Frame in R
- How to Check Data Type in R
- Differences Between data.table and data.frame in R
- How to Filter a data.table in R
- How to Use dcast Function from data.table in R
- How to Set Data Frame Column as Index in R
- How to Rename Data Frame Columns in R
- How to Rename a Single Column in R
- How to Rename Factor Levels in R
- How to Add New Level to Factor in R
- How to Subset Data Frame by Multiple Conditions in R
- How to Subset Data Frame by Factor Levels in R
- How to Subset Data Frame by List of Values in R
- How to Rename an Object in R
- How to Use the names Function in R
- How to Use make.names Function in R
- How to Generate a Sample Using the Sample Function in R
- How to Replicate Rows in Data Frame in R
- How to Use the cut() Function in R
- How to Use rep() Function in R
- How to Use the replicate() Function in R
- How to Use the replace() Function in R
- How to Use the sweep Function in R
- How to Use the tapply() Function in R
- How to Use the apply Function in R
- How to use lapply() function in R
- How to use sapply() function in R
- How to Use the map() Function in R
- How to Use strptime and strftime Functions in R
- How to Use difftime Function in R
- How to Perform Quantile Normalization in R
- How to Normalize Data in R
- How to Standardize Data in R
- How to Use SMOTE for Imbalanced Data in R
- How to Merge Data Frames Based on Multiple Columns in R
- How to Merge Data Frames by Column Names in R
- How to Merge Multiple Data Frames in R
- How to Merge Data Frames by Row Names in R
- How to Remove Rows with Some or All NAs in R
- How to Remove Multiple Rows in R
- How to Select Rows by Index in R
- How to Select Rows with NA Values in R
- How to Select Rows by Condition in R
- How to Extract Last Row in Data Frame in R
- How to Check If a Row in One Data Frame Exists in Another in R
- How to Select Top N Values By Groups in R
- How to Drop Columns from Data Frame in R
- How to Drop Columns by Name in R
- How to Drop Columns if Name Contains Specific String in R
- How to Drop All Columns Except Specific Ones in R
- How to Remove Columns with NA Values in R
- How to Use strsplit() with Multiple Delimiters in R
- How to use strsplit() function in R?
- How to Count Number of NA Values in Each Column in R
- How to Select Columns in R
- How to Select Columns by Index in R
- How to Check if Column Contains String in R
- How to Check if Column Exists in Data Frame in R
- How to Select Columns Containing a Specific String in R
- How to Count Words in String in R
- How to Remove Specific Elements from Vector in R
- How to Filter a Vector in R
- How to Check if a Vector Contains a Given Element in R
- How to Split a Vector into Chunks in R
- How to Drop Rows that Contain a Specific String in R
- How to Split Character String and Get First Element in R
- How to Extract Numbers from Strings in R
- How to Convert Strings to Lowercase in R
- How to Concatenate Strings in R
- What is the Difference Between grep() vs. grepl() in R
- What is the Difference Between lapply() vs. sapply() in R
- How to Use lapply() Function with Multiple Arguments in R
- How to Print Tables in R
- How to Print All Rows of a Tibble in R
- How to Remove Outliers from Multiple Columns in R
- How to Split a Data Frame in R
- How to Combine Two Columns into One in R
- How to Add Suffix to Column Names in R
- How to Add Prefix to Column Names in R
- How to Loop Through Column Names in R
- How to Get Column Names in R
- How to Loop Through List in R
- How to Use OR Operator in R
- How to Use the Pipe Operator in R
- How to Use NOT IN Operator in R
- How to Use Dollar Sign ($) Operator in R
- How to Use the Tilde Operator (~) in R
- How to Subset a Data Frame in R
- How to Compare Two Vectors in R
- How to Combine Two Vectors in R
- How to Compare Two Columns in R
- How to Compare Strings in R
- How to Compare Three Columns in R
- How to Delete Multiple Columns in R
- How to Interpolate Missing Values in R
- How to Find and Count Missing Values in R
- How to Count Non-NA Values in R
- How to Drop Rows with Missing Values in R
- How to Use drop_na to Drop Rows with Missing Values in R
- How to Impute Missing Values in R
- How to Use na.rm in R
- How to Use is.na in R
- How to Remove NA Values from Vector in R
- How to Remove NA from Matrix in R
- How to Add New Column to Matrix in R
- How to Use complete.cases in R
- How to Handle NaN Values in R
- Log, Square Root, and Cube Root Transformations in R
- How to Perform Arcsine Transformation in R
- How to Round Numbers in R
- How to Transpose a Data Frame in R
- How to Remove Rows with Any Zeros in R
- How to Check if Data Frame is Empty in R
- How to Create an Empty Data Frame in R
- How to Create an Empty Matrix in R
- How to Create an Empty List in R
- How to Create an Empty Vector in R
- How to Add an Empty Column to a Data Frame in R
- How to Append Rows to a Data Frame in R
- How to Remove Rows From a Data Frame in R
- How to Count Duplicates in R
- How to Remove Duplicate Rows in R
- How to Append Values to a Vector Using a Loop in R
- How to Append Values to List in R
- How to Combine Lists in R
- How to Combine a List of Matrices in R
- How to Remove Dollar Signs in R
- How to Create Tables in R
- How to Create a Nested For Loop in R
- How to create a For Loop with Range in R
- How to Write a Repeat Loop in R
- How to Return Value from a Function in R
- How to Create a Vector of Zeros in R
- How to Select Random Samples in R
- How to Generate Random Numbers in R
- How to Create a Vector with Random Numbers in R
- How to Create a Matrix with Random Numbers in R
- How to Create a Data Frame with Random Numbers in R
- How to Use runif Function in R
- How to Generate a Normal Distribution in R
- How to Use xtabs() in R to Calculate Frequencies
- How to Calculate Odds Ratios in R
- How to Add a Total Row to a Data Frame in R
- How to Apply Function to Each Row in a Data Frame in R
- How to Find the Max Value in Each Row in R
- How to Use colSums() Function in R
- How to Sort a Data Frame by Date in R
- How to Sort by Multiple Columns in R
- How to Create a List of Lists in R
- How to Subset Lists in R
- How to Find Location of Character in a String in R
- How to Remove Characters from String in R
- How to Remove Spaces from Strings in R
- How to Convert Vector to List in R
- How to Convert a List to a Data Frame in R
- How to Convert List to Vector in R
- How to Convert List to Matrix in R
- How to get the type of an object in R
- How to Convert Tibble to Data Frame in R
- How to Convert Data Frame to Matrix in R
- How to Convert Matrix to Data Frame in R
- How to Convert Matrix to Vector in R
- How to Convert Character to Numeric in R
- How to Convert Character to Factor in R
- How to Convert TRUE and FALSE to 1 and 0 in R
- How to Perform Label Encoding in R
- How to Perform One-Hot Encoding in R
- How to Create a Matrix from Vectors in R
- How to Interpret Significance Codes in R
- How to Write a case_when Statement in R
- How to Use cbind in R
- How to Use rbind in R
- Combine multiple data tables or data frames using rbindlist in R
- How to Create an Empty DataFrame in R
- How to Add a Column to a Data Frame in R
- Add Column to Data Frame Based on Other Columns in R
- How to Do a Left Join in R
- How to Do a Right Join in R
- How to Do an Inner Join in R
- How to Do an Outer Join in R
- How to Do a Cross Join in R
- Difference Between merge() vs. join() in R
- How to Use the Which Function in R
- How to Use the Square Root Function in R
- How to Calculate the Square of a Value in R
- How to use log( ) function in R
- lead( ) & lag( ) R Functions in dplyr
- Find the Max Value Across Multiple Columns in R
- How to Use str_c in R (With Examples)
- How to Use str_count in R (With Examples)
- How to Use str_replace in R (With Examples)
- How to Use str_remove in R (With Examples)
- How to Use str_pad in R (With Examples)
- How to Use str_trim in R (With Examples)
- How to Use str_sub in R (With Examples)
- How to Use str_match in R (With Examples)
- How to Use str_split in R (With Examples)
- How to Use str_extract in R (With Examples)
- How to Use str_detect() Function in R
- How to Replace Values in a Matrix in R
- How to Replace Values in Data Frame in R
- How to Split Column Into Multiple Columns in R
- How to Use the setdiff Function in R
- How to Use the droplevels Function in R
- How to Reorder Factor Levels in R
- Format Numbers as Percentages in R
- How to Create Categorical Variables in R
- How to Split Data into Training & Test Sets in R
- How to Use createDataPartition() Function in R
- How to Perform K-Fold Cross Validation in R
- How to Count the number of Rows and Columns in R