Python print() Function

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The print() function in Python is used to send textual output to the console or another standard output stream. It converts the given objects into strings (if they are not already) and writes the result to the console, followed by a newline character by default.


print(*objects, sep=' ', end='\n', file=sys.stdout, flush=False)


  • objects: Any number of objects to be printed. These can be strings, numbers, or any other object that can be converted to a string.
  • sep: The separator between the objects if multiple objects are provided. Defaults to a space character.
  • end: The character to be printed at the end. Defaults to the newline character.
  • file: A file-like object (stream); defaults to the current sys.stdout.
  • flush: Whether to forcibly flush the stream; useful for ensuring that output is displayed immediately.

Return Value:

It doesn’t return any value; returns None.

Understanding the Basics of print()

The simplest use of print() is to display a message to the console.

print("Hello, World!")

This will output:

Hello, World!

Printing Multiple Objects

print() can take multiple objects, separated by commas, and print them in sequence, separated by spaces by default.

print("The answer is", 42, "!")

This will output:

The answer is 42 !

Changing the Separator

You can change the default separator between items using the sep parameter.

print("Python", "is", "awesome", sep="-")

This will output:


Changing the End Character

By default, print() adds a newline character after printing. This behavior can be changed by using the end parameter.

print("Hello, World!", end=" ")
print("I am using print().")

This will output:

Hello, World! I am using print().

File Parameter

By default, print() sends its output to sys.stdout. However, you can direct the output to other file-like objects with the file parameter.

with open("output.txt", "w") as file:
    print("Hello, file!", file=file)

This will write Hello, file! to output.txt.

Flush Parameter

The flush parameter is used to force the output to be flushed to the stream immediately. This is useful in real-time logging of events where immediate display is crucial.

import time

print("Starting process...", flush=True)
# Long running process
print("Process completed.")

Advanced Usage of print()

While beginners may use print() in its simplest form, more experienced programmers will appreciate the advanced ways it can be used.

Formatting Output

Python’s print() function can be combined with string formatting techniques to create neatly formatted output.

Using String Concatenation

name = "Alice"
age = 25
print("Name: " + name + ", Age: " + str(age))

Using String Formatting

print("Name: {}, Age: {}".format(name, age))
# Or with f-Strings (Python 3.6+)
print(f"Name: {name}, Age: {age}")

Printing to STDERR

Sometimes it’s necessary to print to stderr instead of stdout, particularly for error messages.

import sys

print("Error: Invalid input.", file=sys.stderr)

Using print() in Lambda Functions

print() can also be used in lambda functions, although this is not a common practice and is generally not recommended for functional programming paradigms.

# Python 3.8 and above allows this
(lambda x: print(x))(42)


The print() function, while deceptively simple, is a vital tool in the Python programmer’s toolkit. From outputting “Hello, World!” to handling sophisticated logging, print() facilitates a wide range of functionality. Mastery of print() enhances debugging, data representation, and user interaction. By leveraging advanced features like custom separators, end characters, file redirection, and flush controls, developers can tailor the function to meet a variety of needs.

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