“The Power Paradox: How We Gain and Lose Influence” by Dacher Keltner delves into the dynamics and complexities of power within human relationships, organizations, and societies. Keltner, a professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, posits an idea known as the “power paradox,” which refers to the dilemma where the very qualities that help individuals gain power are those that deteriorate once power is achieved.
The book is divided into several chapters, each exploring various facets of power dynamics.
The initial chapters set the foundation for understanding power. Keltner argues that power is not only about coercive force or resources, but also about the capacity to influence others and alter their states of mind. This influence can be achieved through empathy, open-mindedness, and the ability to work well in groups. Therefore, power isn’t solely reserved for the traditionally ‘powerful’ or dominant figures in society. Rather, power can be found in everyday interpersonal interactions and relationships.
Subsequent chapters delve into the darker side of power. The central tenet of the power paradox is presented here: those qualities that help individuals ascend to power—such as empathy, kindness, and socially intelligent behaviors—are precisely the ones that degrade as they gain power. Power can lead to impulsive behavior, less careful consideration of others’ perspectives, and diminished capacity for empathy and kindness.
Keltner presents a variety of social science research to support his argument. He references various experiments, historical events, and real-life cases. For example, he discusses the Stanford Prison Experiment, in which participants assigned to be “guards” quickly began to exhibit cruel behavior. He also discusses the effects of power on the brain, likening the effects to traumatic brain injury in the way it can lead to impulsivity and reduced empathy.
The later part of the book focuses on the ways we can counteract the power paradox. Here, Keltner highlights the importance of maintaining a focus on others, practicing empathy, and cultivating a sense of gratitude and humility, even when in positions of power. He suggests that a mindful awareness of the power paradox can enable individuals to maintain their ethical and moral standards even as they rise to positions of influence.
Furthermore, Keltner argues that it’s necessary for organizations and societies to create structures that can keep the power paradox in check. Checks and balances, term limits, regulations, and systems that encourage transparency and accountability can help ensure that power doesn’t corrupt those who wield it.
In conclusion, “The Power Paradox” offers an insightful exploration of the often counterintuitive dynamics of power. It encourages readers to reassess their own relationships with power and offers strategies for navigating power dynamics more ethically and effectively. It serves as a cautionary tale about the dangers of power but also as a guide to how we can use power for good.
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About the Author
Dacher Keltner is a professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley. Over the course of his career, he has published over 190 articles in publications such as the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal. He is also the author of multiple best-selling books, including Born to Be Good: The Science of a Meaningful Life and The Compassionate Instinct.